Sexual assault is a personal and destructive crime. Its effects on
you and your loved ones can be psychological, emotional, and/or
physical. They can be brief in duration or last a very long time. It
is important to remember that there is not one "normal" reaction to
sexual assault. Therefore your individual response will be different
depending on your personal circumstances. In this section, we explain
some of the more common effects that sexual assault victims may
Depression: There are many emotional and psychological
reactions that victims of rape and sexual assault can experience. One of
the most common of these is depression. The term "depression" can be
confusing since many of the symptoms are experienced by people as normal
reactions to events. At some point or another, everyone feels sad or
"blue." This also means that recognizing depression can be difficult
since the symptoms can easily be attributed to other causes. These
feelings are perfectly normal, especially during difficult times.
Depression becomes something more than just normal feelings of sadness
when the symptoms last for more than two weeks. Therefore, if you
experience five or more of the symptoms of depression over the course of
two weeks you should consider talking to your doctor about what you are
experiencing. The symptoms of depression may include:
- Prolonged sadness or unexplained crying spells
- Significant change in weight or appetite
- Loss of energy or persistent fatigue
- Significant change in sleep patterns (insomnia, sleeping too much,
fitful sleep, etc.)
- Loss of interest and pleasure in activities previously enjoyed;
- Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness or guilt
- Pessimism or indifference
- Unexplained aches and pains (headaches, stomachaches)
- Inability to concentrate, indecisiveness
- Irritability, worry, anger, agitation, or anxiety
- Thoughts of death or suicide
- If you are having suicidal thoughts, don't wait to get help.
Call us or the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK
(8255) at any time.
Depression can affect people of any age, gender, race, ethnicity, or
religion. Depression is not a sign of weakness, and it is not something
that someone can make him/herself "snap out of."
Rate your risk for depression
Flashbacks: when memories of past traumas feel as if they are
taking place in the current moment. These memories can take many forms:
dreams, sounds, smells, images, body sensations, or overwhelming
emotions. This re-experience of the trauma often seems to come from
nowhere, and therefore blurs the lines between past and present, leaving
the individual feeling anxious, scared, and/or powerless. It can also
trigger any other emotions that were felt at the time of the trauma.
Some flashbacks are mild and brief, a passing moment, while others may
be powerful and last a long time. Many times you may not even realize
that you are having a flashback and may feel faint and/or dissociate (a
mental process in which your thoughts and feelings may be separated from
your immediate reality). If you realize you are in the middle of a
- First, Get Grounded: The first thing to do is sit up
straight and put both feet on the floor. This will help you to feel
- Be In the Present: It can be helpful to remind yourself
that the event you are reliving happened in the past and you are now in
the present. The actual event is over, and you survived.
- Breathing: Try focusing on your breathing. One way to do
that is to count to four as you breathe in. Count to four as you hold
that breath and then count to four as you exhale. If you do this and
keep repeating it, you may find that you can become calmer and can be in
- Pay Attention to Surroundings: Another way to help
yourself feel like you are in the present is to pay attention to your
surroundings. What is the light in the room like right now? Touch
something around you that is grounded like a table or a chair. What
does it feel like? Can you smell anything? Do you hear any sounds?
- Self-Soothing: Are there things that normally make you
feel safe and secure like wrapping a blanket around yourself or making
- Normal: Also, remember that it can take time to recover.
You are not crazy. This is a normal reaction.
- Take care of yourself: Give yourself time to recover after a
flashback. Reach out to loved ones or counselors who will be
Rape Trauma: a common reaction to rape or sexual assault. It is
a normal human reaction to an unnatural or extreme event. There are
three phases to rape trauma:
NOTE: This model assumes that you will take steps forward and backwards
in your healing process and that while there are phases it is not a
linear progression and will be different for every person.
Acute Phase: occurs immediately after the assault and usually
lasts a few days to several weeks. In this phase, you can have many
reactions but they typically fall into three different categories:
- Expressed: when you are openly emotional
- Controlled: when you appear to be without emotion, and act as if
"nothing happened" and "everything is fine"
- Shocked disbelief: when you react with a strong sense of
Outward Adjustment Phase: resume what appears to be your
"normal" life, but inside you are still suffering from considerable
turmoil. This phase has five primary coping techniques:
- Minimization: pretending that everything is fine or convincing
yourself that "it could have been worse"
- Dramatization: you cannot stop talking about the assault and it
dominates your life and identity
- Suppression: you refuse to discuss the event and act as if it
did not happen
- Explanation: you analyze what happened, what you did and what
the rapist was thinking/feeling
- Flight: you try to escape the pain (moving, changing jobs,
changing appearance, changing relationships, etc.)
- Resolution Phase: the assault is no longer the central focus
of your life. While you may recognize that you will never forget the
assault, the pain and negative outcomes lessen over time. Often you
will begin to accept the rape as part of your life and choose to move
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: a normal human reaction to an
extreme or abnormal situation. Each person has a different threshold
for what is perceived as a traumatic event. PTSD is not a rare or
unusual occurrence, in fact, many people experience PTSD as a result of a
traumatic experience such as rape or sexual assault. You may be
experiencing PTSD if you have experienced the following symptoms for at
least a month:
- Shown symptoms of intense horror, helplessness, or fear
- Experienced distressing memories of the event
- Regularly avoided things or triggers that remind you of the event
- Shown significant impairment or distress due to the event
- Shown at least two symptoms of increased arousal (sleep
difficulties, difficulty concentrating, hyper vigilance, an exaggerated
startle response, or irritability or outbursts of anger/rage)
Pregnancy: Because rape, just like consensual sex, can lead to
pregnancy, it is important for female victims to be tested after an
assault. If you need additional information visit Medline
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs):
Victims of sexual violence are at risk of contracting sexually
If you went to the emergency room for a rape exam, you should have
been offered preventive treatment (antibiotics) for sexually transmitted
infections and given information about where to go for follow-up
- If you need more information about this, or did not receive
preventive care, call us and we can help you figure out what resources
If you did not get medical care after your attack, it's still
important to get tested for sexually transmitted infections, including
- The Centers for Disease Control recommend follow-up testing two
weeks after a sexual assault and blood tests to rule out HIV infection 6
weeks, 3 months and 6 months after an assault.
- If left untreated, STIs and HIV can cause major medical problems,
so it's very important to get tested (and treated, if necessary) as soon
Some survivors of sexual assault may get so depressed that they think
about ending their own life. Suicidal thoughts should be taken very
If you or someone you know is having suicidal thoughts, please get
- If you have already taken steps, or feel that you can't avoid
harming yourself, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room.
- You can also call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline for
help 24 hours a day at 800-273-TALK (8255). If you are having suicidal
thoughts or you know someone who is, they can listen and help.
- If you are worried that a loved one is contemplating suicide,
it's okay to ask them about it directly. Suicide experts say that
asking someone about suicidal thoughts will not lead them to consider
suicide if they're not already contemplating it.
Effects for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Assault:
There are many reactions that survivors of rape and sexual assault can
have. But for adult survivors of childhood sexual assault there are
reactions that may either be different or stronger than for other
survivors. These include:
- Setting limits/boundaries: because your personal boundaries were
invaded at a young age by someone that was trusted and depended on, you
may have trouble understanding that you have the right to control what
happens to you.
- Anger: as a child, your anger was powerless and had little to no
effect on the actions of your abuser. For this reason, you may not feel
confident that your anger will be useful or helpful.
- Grieving/mourning: being abused as a child means the loss of many
things: childhood experiences, trust, perceived innocence, and a normal
relationship with family members (especially if the abuser was a family
member). You must be allowed to name those losses, grieve them, and
then move forward.
- Guilt/shame/blame: you may carry a lot of guilt because you may
have experienced pleasure or because you did not try to stop the abuse.
There may have been silence surrounding the abuse that led to feelings
of shame. It is important to understand that it was the adult who
abused his/her position of authority and should be held accountable, not
- Trust: learning to trust again may be very difficult for you.
- Coping skills: as a survivor of childhood sexual abuse, you may
have developed skills in order to cope with the trauma. Some of these
are healthy (possibly separating yourself from certain family members,
seeking out counseling, etc.); some are not (drinking or drug abuse,
promiscuous sexual activity, etc.).
- Self-esteem/isolation: low self-esteem is a result of all the
negative messages you received and internalized from your abusers. And
because entering into an intimate relationship involves trust, respect,
love, and the ability to share, you may flee from intimacy or hold on
too tightly for fear of losing the relationship.
- Sexuality: many survivors have to deal with the fact that their
first sexual experience came as a result of sexual abuse. You may
experience the return of body memories while engaging in a sexual
activity with another person.
Body Memories: when the memories of the abuse you experienced
take the form of physical problems that cannot be explained by the usual
means (medical examinations, etc.). These maladies are often called
"psychosomatic symptoms" which does not, as many people think, mean that
it is "in your head." Rather, it means that the symptoms are due to
the connection between the mind and the body. Physical problems that
can come of these somatic memories include:
- Headaches, migraines
- Light headedness/dizziness
- Stomach difficulties
- Hot/cold flashes
- Grinding of teeth
- Sleep disorders
For more effects, please visit RAINN's
Effects of Sexual Assault Page